Poggio Shelter is located on the Italian coast of the Tyrrhenian sea, some 80 km South-east of Naples. The Shelter was part of a complex underground karst system, which was partially dismantled by sea erosion during the high-stand of MIS 7, originating a large niche with a thick deposit at the foot of a falaise, and small cave. Archaeological excavations were carried out in the deposit and in the cave during the 1970s, putting into light a 23 m-thick sequence, including 17 m of archaeological levels. The sequence is mainly made up of cave breakdown deposits mixed with colluvium originated by the reworking of red soils (Alfisols); soils or moderately reworked soils also occur, interfingered within the sequence. These sediments reflect environmental processes related respectively to the damping of the glacial effects by the mediterranean environment, and to warm interstadial phases. The bottom of the sequence is covered by the present-day sea-level; the basal deposit can probably be attributed to MIS7 because of the characteristics of the lithics occurring in the overlying levels, which include a level dated to 111.8 ky BP. The overlying sequence can be divided into three main parts, most of which contains archaeological records of culturally different human presences, starting from ancient Middle Palaeolithic cultures to Upper Palaeolithic. - Levels 20-18, made up of breakdown deposits with evidence of colluvium and some aeolian processes. The faunal assemblage can be divided into two stages, and includes mainly red deer, with roe deer, wild boar, ibex, chamois, bovines, and with Elephas and Stephanorhinus occurring only in the lower part. Since layer 18 appears evidence of human presence. Lower part of layer 18 contains an archaic and un-standardized lithic assemblage, characterised by denticulates and thick tools. The upper part contains a more specialised industry, basically focused on production of Quina-type side-scrapers with stepped retouch. This whole part of the sequence may correspond to the cold stage MIS 6, characterised by a patchy forested environment of fresh climate. - Levels 17-9, reddish soils and soil sediments, interfingered with tephra, and dated to 43800±3500 BP in level 9. Among the faunas, which are statistically relevant only in levels 10-9, the fallow deer is the dominant ungulate, corresponding to an interstadial with temperate and moderately wet mediterranean-like climate. From the bottom to the top, we highlighted at least four main cultural phases. In layer 17 appears the first assemblage with Levallois technology, containing mainly slightly-retouched flat tools. Layer 16 contains a typical Mousterian assemblage which shows further development of Levallois technique. A scarce amount of findings comes from layers 15-13 (tephra), while the top of Middle Palaeolithic series (layers 12-9) contains an abundant, technologically and typologically advanced mousterian industry. - Levels 8-1, colluvium of Alfisols and breakdown deposits with evidence of strong soil erosion, including very few faunal remains; these levels can be ascribed to a somewhat cold climate with continental traits of environmental instability. Following the erosion, from layer 7 to the top, findings showed out the presence of Epigravettian culture. For what concerns human behaviour, it is noteworthy that the most frequent ungulates (red and fallow deer) were killed mostly when adult. The identified skeletal parts are represented mostly by isolated teeth and limb bones. In levels 18a (bottom) and 10, most of the sediment skeleton is made up of strongly comminuted bone fragments, unsorted and with grain-size down to some tens of micrometres. Lithic raw materials procurement area (close-distance from site) appears more or less the same in all periods, however we highlight a lack of selection strategies in MIS 6 assemblages, while more recent industries show evidence of growing accuracy in selecting quality for tools production.
|Autori:||Boscato P; Boschian G; Caramia F; Gambassini P|
|Titolo:||Il Riparo del Poggio a Marina di Camerota (Salerno): culture ed ambiente.|
|Anno del prodotto:||2009|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|