The study of some samples of Italian Neolithic pottery (5th millennium B.C.) have put into evidence that high-level standardized techniques were adopted in the production of a peculiar ware decorated with red and black bands. High firing temperatures were a standard, aiming to obtain surface sintered layers and possibly a sort of “glaze.” The red pigments were basically “ochre” (Fe3+-oxides and clay). The nature of the black pigment is still uncertain, but it suggests that Fe2+ and not Mn-oxides were used.
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