The aim of this research was to determine the growth rate and the nutrient uptake (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) of artichoke during the first three planting years, using the late cultivar “Terom”. Artichoke plants showed two periods of vegetative growth, in autumn and spring. In the third year, the fresh biomass production was 106.3 t ha−1 (equal to 13.6 t ha−1 of dry weight). Total nutrient uptake of artichoke plants was 272 kg ha−1 of N, 40.2 kg ha−1 of P2O5, 342.4 kg ha−1 of K2O, 314 kg ha−1 of CaO and 8.8 kg ha−1 of MgO, while the nutrient uptake ratio was 1: 0.14 : 1.25 : 1.15 : 0.03. Nutrients removal by artichoke head harvest was 32.1 kg ha−1 of N, 6.7 kg ha−1 of P2O5, 39.7 kg ha−1 of K2O, 20.6 kg ha−1 of CaO and 0.36 kg ha−1 of MgO. The highest nutrient uptake occurred in spring, during the growth of the flower stems until the harvest of the main heads.