Cell morphology is controlled by a complex and redundant array of intracellular signaling pathways devoted to the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and of its relationship with the cell membrane and the extracellular matrix. Sex steroids are effective regulators of cell morphology and tissue organization, and recent evidence indicates that this is obtained through the regulation of the cytoskeleton. Intriguingly, many of these regulatory actions related to cell morphology are achieved through rapid, non-classical signaling of sex steroid receptors to kinase cascades, independently from nuclear alteration of gene expression or protein synthesis. The identification of the mechanistic basis for these rapid actions on cell cytoskeleton has special relevance for the characterization of the effects of sex steroids in physiological conditions, such as their role in the control of brain cell remodeling. Brain cell morphology is controlled by estrogens that regulate the development of neuron/neuron interconnections and dendritic spine density. This is thought to be critical for gender-specific differences in brain function and dysfunction. The recent advancements in the characterization of the molecular basis of the extra-nuclear signaling of estrogen helps to understand the role of estrogen in the brain, and may in the future turn out to be of relevance for clinical purposes. This review highlights the regulatory effects on the cytoskeleton and cell morphology of estrogens as well as the recent advances in the characterization of these mechanisms, providing insights and working hypotheses on possible clinical applications for the modulation of these pathways in the central nervous system.
|Autori:||Sanchez A.M.; Simoncini T.|
|Titolo:||Extra-nuclear signaling of ERalpha to the actin cytoskeleton in the central nervous system.|
|Anno del prodotto:||2010|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|