Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate biotrophs; nevertheless their spores can germinate in the absence of host plants. Such inconsistent behavior is balanced by diverse survival strategies. The ability of AM fungal hyphae to fuse might represent a fundamental survival strategy because germlings could plug into compatible mycorrhizal networks, thus gaining access to plant-derived carbon before asymbiotic growth arrest. An in vivo experimental system was used to grow extraradical mycelium produced by Glomus mosseae colonizing three different plant species and germlings of the same isolate. After symbiotic and asymbiotic mycelia came into contact we showed that germling hyphae fused with symbiotic network hyphae and established protoplasm connections with nuclei occurring in fusion bridges. The frequency of anastomoses between germling and symbiotic hyphae was 4.9-23.9%. Prefusion and postfusion incompatible responses, with protoplasm withdrawal in interacting hyphae, were evident in some hyphal contacts. Given the multigenomic nature of AMF, the mingling of germling nuclei with those of the mycorrhizal network through perfect fusions might represent a means for the maintenance of genetic diversity in the absence of sexual recombination.
|Autori:||SBRANA C; FORTUNA P; GIOVANNETTI M|
|Titolo:||Plugging into the network: belowground connections between germlings and extraradical mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi|
|Anno del prodotto:||2011|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.3852/10-125|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|