There is a significant overlap between brain areas with Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) pathological dys-homeostasis and those in which the nerve growth factor (NGF) performs its biological role. The protein NGF is necessary for the development and maintenance of the sympathetic and sensory nervous systems. Its flexible N-terminal region has been shown to be a critical domain for TrkA receptor binding and activation. Computational analyses show that Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) form pentacoordinate complexes involving both the His4 and His8 residues of the N-terminal domain of one monomeric unit and the His84 and Asp105 residues of the other monomeric unit of the NGF active dimer. To date, neither experimental data on the coordination features have been reported, nor has one of the hypotheses according to which Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) may have different binding environments or the Ser1 alpha-amino group could be involved in coordination been supported. The peptide fragment, encompassing the 1-14 sequence of the human NGF amino-terminal domain (NGF(1-14)), blocked at the C terminus, was synthesised and its Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) complexes characterized by means of potentiometric and spectroscopic (UV/Vis, CD, NMR, and EPR) techniques. The N-terminus-acetylated form of NGF(1-14) was also investigated to evaluate the involvement of the Ser1 alpha-amino group in metal-ion coordination. Our results demonstrate that the amino group is the first anchoring site for Cu(2+) and is involved in Zn(2+) coordination at physiological pH. Finally, a synergic proliferative activity of both NGF(1-14) and the whole protein on SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cell line was found after treatment in the presence of Cu(2+). This effect was not observed after treatment with the N-acetylated peptide fragment, demonstrating a functional involvement of the N-terminal amino group in metal binding and peptide activity.
|Autori:||Travaglia A; Arena G; Fattorusso R; Isernia C; La Mendola D; Malgieri G; Nicoletti VG; Rizzarelli E|
|Titolo:||The Inorganic Perspective of Nerve Growth Factor: Interactions of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) with the N-Terminus Fragment of Nerve Growth Factor Encompassing the Recognition Domain of the TrkA Receptor|
|Anno del prodotto:||2011|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1002/chem.201002294|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|