Background. Resistance to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) is often associated with chronic inflammation. Here, we investigated how anaemia, ESA resistance and the plasma levels of biological markers of inflammation could influence all-cause and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Methods. Seven hundred and fifty-three haemodialysis (HD) patients (mean age 66 +/- 14.2 years, mean dialytic age 70 +/- 77 months and diabetes 18.8%) were enrolled and followed-up for 36 months. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, co-morbidity conditions, administered drugs, all-cause mortality and fatal/non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events were recorded. We measured ESA /INS> resistance index, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results. Six hundred and fifty-one patients (86.4%) received ESAs. Patients with haemoglobin level <11 g/dL (n = 225) showed increased risk of CV [ relative risk (RR) 1.415, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.046-1.914] and overall mortality (RR 1.897, 95% CI 1.423-2.530) versus patients with haemoglobin levels >11 g/dL. ESA resistance values categorized into quartiles (Quartile I <5.6, Quartile II 5.7-9.6, Quartile III 9.7-15.4 and Quartile IV >15.4) correlated with all-cause mortality and fatal/non-fatal CV events (RR 1.97, 95% CI 1.392-2.786; RR 1.619, 95% CI 1.123-2.332, respectively). Furthermore, albumin was significantly reduced versus reference patients and correlated with all-cause mortality and CV events; CRP levels were higher in hyporesponders (Quartile IV) (P < 0.001) and predicted all-cause mortality and CV events. IL-6 but not CRP was a strong predictor of ESA resistance. Conclusions. ESA responsiveness can be considered a strong prognostic factor in HD patients and seems to be tightly related to protein-energy wasting and inflammation.

Anaemia and resistance to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents as prognostic factors in haemodialysis patients: results from the RISCAVID study

PANICHI, VINCENZO;
2011

Abstract

Background. Resistance to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) is often associated with chronic inflammation. Here, we investigated how anaemia, ESA resistance and the plasma levels of biological markers of inflammation could influence all-cause and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Methods. Seven hundred and fifty-three haemodialysis (HD) patients (mean age 66 +/- 14.2 years, mean dialytic age 70 +/- 77 months and diabetes 18.8%) were enrolled and followed-up for 36 months. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, co-morbidity conditions, administered drugs, all-cause mortality and fatal/non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events were recorded. We measured ESA /INS> resistance index, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results. Six hundred and fifty-one patients (86.4%) received ESAs. Patients with haemoglobin level <11 g/dL (n = 225) showed increased risk of CV [ relative risk (RR) 1.415, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.046-1.914] and overall mortality (RR 1.897, 95% CI 1.423-2.530) versus patients with haemoglobin levels >11 g/dL. ESA resistance values categorized into quartiles (Quartile I <5.6, Quartile II 5.7-9.6, Quartile III 9.7-15.4 and Quartile IV >15.4) correlated with all-cause mortality and fatal/non-fatal CV events (RR 1.97, 95% CI 1.392-2.786; RR 1.619, 95% CI 1.123-2.332, respectively). Furthermore, albumin was significantly reduced versus reference patients and correlated with all-cause mortality and CV events; CRP levels were higher in hyporesponders (Quartile IV) (P < 0.001) and predicted all-cause mortality and CV events. IL-6 but not CRP was a strong predictor of ESA resistance. Conclusions. ESA responsiveness can be considered a strong prognostic factor in HD patients and seems to be tightly related to protein-energy wasting and inflammation.
Panichi, Vincenzo; Rosati, A; Bigazzi, R; Paoletti, S; Mantuano, E; Beati, S; Marchetti, V; Bernabini, G; Grazi, G; Rizza, Gm; Migliori, M; Giusti, R; Lippi, A; Casani, A; Barsotti, G; Tetta, C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/151667
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