In the present work we aimed to standardise the alkaline comet assay with erythrocytes of the cyprinodont, Mediterranean Killifish, Aphanius fasciatus. The aims of the study were to explore the suitability of this fish to assess biomarkers of genotoxic effects and as a sentinel organism to detect complex genotoxic mixtures in coastal lagoon ecosystems. Following proper optimisation, the application and effectiveness of the comet assay in erythrocytes of A. fasciatus were tested by measuring the tail DNA (%) induced by (a) in vivo exposure of individual fish to X-rays (dose, 3Gy) and (b) following in vitro challenge of erythrocytes with restriction endonucleases Fok-I and Eco-RI, which selectively induce double-strand breaks with cohesive and blunt termini, respectively. Furthermore, in order to evaluate whether circulating fish blood contained actively proliferating cells that could influence the extent of DNA damage in control (untreated) fish, we measured the number of "comets" positive for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) by the use of anti-BrdU antibody and immuno-histochemical methods. Both treatments (i.e. with X-rays and restriction endonucleases) induced statistically significant increases in tail DNA (%) values compared with the relevant untreated controls, indicating the effectiveness of the comet assay in the erythrocytes of A. fasciatus to detect different types of DNA lesions. Results from anti-BrdU antibody labelling of erythrocytes indicated a very low percentage (5%) of "comets" positive for BrdU. Following optimisation and validation of the assay under laboratory conditions, fish were collected in the Orbetello lagoon (Tuscany, Italy), considered to be a significantly polluted site. The results showed statistically significant increases for tail DNA (%) compared with corresponding values observed in erythrocytes of fish caught in the unpolluted reference site "Saline di Tarquinia". The effects of physico-chemical parameters of the water (i.e., salinity, pH and oxygen content) did not significantly influence the induction of DNA damage. These results indicate that the comet assay provides a reliable parameter and that A. fasciatus is a promising "sentinel organism" to detect the genotoxic impact of complex mixtures in coastal lagoon ecosystems.
|Autori interni:||PRETTI, CARLO|
|Autori:||Mosesso P; Angeletti D; Pepe G; Pretti C; Nascetti G; Bellacima R; Cimmaruta R; Jha AN|
|Titolo:||The use of cyprinodont fish, Aphanius fasciatus, as a sentinel organism to detect complex genotoxic mixtures in the coastal lagoon ecosystem|
|Anno del prodotto:||2012|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.11.018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|