Goiter is still a frequent pathological condition of the thyroid gland. Goiter consists of an enlargement of the gland caused by several physiopathologic events, the most important of which is deficient intake of iodine. A series of eighteenth-century mummies housed in the church of Santa Maria della Grazia in Comiso includes one individual showing a pathological condition, with a very large swelling in the antero-inferior region of the neck. X-rays showed small scattered radiopaque foci. Routine histology showed a large number of circular follicles immersed in fibrous tissue. Finally, immunohistochemistry revealed a strong reactivity for thyroglobulin. The data confirmed the nature of the tissue as thyroid, and the macroscopic diagnosis is that of thyroid goiter.