The clinical benefits of HRT are clearly established for the relief of menopausal symptoms, improving quality of life and the prevention of osteoporosis. Although research on the impact of HRT (oral, transdermal, tibolone, etc.) and on the effects of raloxifene on CVD is still ongoing, with certain unresolved controversies, studies using a variety of different HRT formulations have shown a clear benefit on surrogate markers of CHD and epidemiological and clinical, although not randomized, studies have demonstrated a CHD reduction in HRT-treated women. Today, HRT may be used for the primary prevention of CVD. Conversely, there is no clear reason to commence HRT solely or primarily to confer an immediate cardiovascular benefit in postmenopausal women with established CHD. Equally, there is no compelling evidence for discontinuing--or indeed not initiating--HRT in women without CVD because of concern about cardiovascular risk. In any case, all medical interventions should be individualized to the specific woman's age, characteristics and needs. The ultimate effects of different dosages, schedules and type of hormones used should be clarified, avoiding inferring the effects of one form of HRT to others. The importance of increased attention to life-style factors such as healthy diet, exercise and cessation of smoking should be underlined since these can confer specific benefits also to menopausal women. For women with known risks for CVD, HRT may contribute to the beneficial effects of life-style improvements and well-established therapies (including blood pressure control, cholesterol-lowering drugs, aspirin, etc.). New strategies, including lower dosages, new estrogens, progestins, and new estrogen-like substances may be designed to target specific needs.
|Autori interni:||GENAZZANI, ANDREA|
|Autori:||Genazzani A; Gambacciani M; International Menopause Society.|
|Titolo:||Controversial issues in climacteric medicine I. Cardiovascular disease and hormone replacement therapy. International Menopause Society Expert Workshop. 13-16 October 2000, royal society of medicine, London, UK.|
|Anno del prodotto:||2000|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|