Insulin regulation of hepatic glucose production (HGP) is altered in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), resulting in increased glucose output by the liver; this contributes to the elevation in plasma glucose concentration observed both in the basal state and postprandially. Therefore, restoration of normal insulin action in the liver must be a goal of hypoglycemic therapy. Sulfonylureas have been widely used for treatment of NIDDM over the past 30 years. In addition to their stimulatory effect on insulin secretion, these compounds seem to possess extrapancreatic effects. Early in vitro studies showed that addition of sulfonylureas to the perfusion medium of liver preparations could exert a significant suppressive effect on HGP. Subsequent experience suggested that these compounds could act at the level of the insulin receptor as well as at various postreceptor sites. These studies showed that sulfonylureas may inhibit glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis while stimulating glycogen synthesis. Results obtained in vivo in NIDDM patients are in agreement with the in vitro studies. Long-term treatment with sulfonylureas is associated with a decline in fasting plasma glucose concentration and a parallel reduction in HGP. Nevertheless, the direct effect of sulfonylurea administration on the liver remains unclear, since the reduction in HGP that occurs during sulfonylurea treatment may be secondary to an overall improvement in insulin secretion. It is also of interest that in insulin-dependent diabetic patients, sulfonylurea administration in combination with insulin injections is not followed by a significant change in HGP. Possible effects of sulfonylureas on glucagon secretion and on the metabolism of free fatty acids (FFAs) may also contribute to improved sensitivity of the liver to the suppressive action of insulin, since these agents appear to reduce plasma glucagon and FFA concentrations. Thus, present data support an extrapancreatic action of sulfonylureas on the liver. However, it does appear that a certain degree of residual insulin secretion is required for sulfonylurea agents to elicit their hepatic effect.
|Autori:||Del Prato S; Vigili de Kreutzenberg S; Riccio A; Tiengo A|
|Titolo:||Hepatic sensitivity to insulin: effects of sulfonylurea drugs|
|Anno del prodotto:||1991|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/0002-9343(91)90415-T|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|