Despite the clear benefits of long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT), the majority of patients tend to undergo short-term treatment. The cyclical bleedings induced by the sequential progestogen administration are often unacceptable namely in the elderly postmenopausal women. At the standard doses HRT preparations can also induce annoying hormone-related side effects, both in sequential and continuous combined regimens. Lower HRT schedules are reported to be highly effective in the relief of climacteric symptoms, inducing minimal endometrial stimulation with high rates of amenorrhea. Continuous administration of low doses of progestins is safe for endometrium protection and minimizes progestin-related side effects. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that low dose HRT can prevent the increase in bone turnover and the consequent bone loss in postmenopausal women. The choice of lower HRT dosages can also be useful for the number of potential disadvantages of standard HRT doses, mainly for long-term treatments. Low dose regimens should be considered as a starting dose to minimize the occurrence of side effects, improving compliance and, therefore, HRT effects on the prevention of long-term consequences of estrogen deprivation.
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