We investigated whether cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms (COX-1 and COX-2) and decreased NO availability contribute to endothelial dysfunction in endotoxemic rats. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also evaluated. Rats were injected with Salmonella-derived lipopolysaccharide or saline. After 6 h, endothelial function of mesenteric resistance arteries was evaluated. In controls, acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation was inhibited by the nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) and unaffected by 5,5-dimethyl-3-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-(4-methylsulphonyl)-phenyl-2(5H)-furanone (DFU) (COX-2 inhibitor). In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rats, the response to ACh was blunted compared with controls, less sensitive to l-NMMA, and enhanced by DFU. COX-2 blockade also improved the inhibitory effect of l-NMMA on cholinergic relaxation. SC-560 [5-(4-clorophenyl)-1-(4-metoxyphenyl)-3-trifluoromethylpirazole] (COX-1 inhibitor) did not modify the response to ACh in both groups. LPS-induced endothelial dysfunction was unaffected by the thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) receptor antagonist SQ-29548 (7-[3-[[2-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]hydrazino]methyl]-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1] hept-2-yl]-[1S(1alpha,2alpha(Z),3alpha,4alpha)]-5-heptenoic acid). In vivo inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibition by S-methylisothiourea partly attenuated LPS-induced endothelial dysfunction. The antioxidants ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase normalized endothelium-dependent relaxation and restored the inhibitory action of l-NMMA on ACh. Responses to sodium nitroprusside were similar in both groups. In LPS-treated rats, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed a marked increase in mesenteric iNOS and COX-2 expressions, whereas endothelial nitric-oxide synthase and COX-1 were unchanged. LPS-induced COX-2 overexpression was reduced but not abrogated by S-methylisothiourea. LPS-induced COX-2 up-regulation was also documented by immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, mesenteric resistance vessels from endotoxemic rats show impaired endothelial function due to reduced NO availability, a condition that is partly ascribable to an iNOS-dependent enhanced COX-2 expression, whereas TxA(2) does not seem to be involved. Oxidative stress is the main mechanism responsible for reduced NO availability, and COX-2 might act as a source of ROS.
|Autori:||VIRDIS A; COLUCCI R; FORNAI M; BLANDIZZI C; DURANTI E; PINTO S; BERNARDINI N; SEGNANI C; ANTONIOLI L; TADDEI S; SALVETTI A; DEL TACCA M.|
|Titolo:||Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition improves vascular endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of endotoxic shock: role of iNOS and oxidative stress|
|Anno del prodotto:||2005|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1124/jpet.104.077644|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|