Erythrocytes are involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. Since pH is the infl uential factor in the Bohr-Haldane effect, pHi is actively maintained via secondary active transports Na+/H+ exchange and HC3 -/Cl- anion exchanger. Because of the redox properties of the iron, hemoglobin generates reactive oxygen species and thus, the human erythrocyte is constantly exposed to oxidative damage. Although the adult erythrocyte lacks protein synthesis and cannot restore damaged proteins, it is equipped with high activity of protective enzymes. Redox changes in the cell initiate various signalling pathways. Plasma membrane oxido-reductases (PMORs) are transmembrane electron transport systems that have been found in the membranes of all cells and have been extensively characterized in the human erythrocyte. Erythrocyte PMORs transfer reducing equivalents from intracellular reductants to extracellular oxidants, thus their most important role seems to be to enable the cell respond to changes in intra- and extra-cellular redox environments. So far the activity of erythrocyte PMORs in disease states has not been systematically investigated. This review summarizes present knowledge on erythrocyte electron transfer activity in humans (health, type 1 diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, and chronic uremia) and hypothesizes an integrated model of the functional organization of erythrocyte plasma membrane where electron pathways work in parallel with transport metabolons to maintain redox homeostasis.
|Autori interni:||MATTEUCCI, ELENA|
|Autori:||MATTEUCCI E; GIAMPIETRO O|
|Titolo:||Electron Pathways through Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane in Human Physiology and Pathology: Potential Redox Biomarker?|
|Anno del prodotto:||2007|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|