The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 136 canine isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius and 10 canine isolates of S. schleiferi subspecies coagulans to 16 fluoroquinolones (FQs), and to investigate the mechanisms of resistance in the nonsusceptible isolates. Of the 136 of S. intermedius tested 98.5% were susceptible to all 16 FQs whereas only 40% of the 10 isolates of S. schleiferi subspecies coagulans were susceptible. Two isolates of S. intermedius and six isolates of S. schleiferi, were found to be resistant to 13 out of 16 FQs, while they retained their susceptibility to fourth generation FQs such as gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and trovafloxacin. Sequencing of the quinolone-resistance determining regions of gyrA and grlA genes showed that in S. intermedius, dichotomous resistance to FQs was associated with the occurrence of one alteration in GyrA-84 and one in GrlA-80, while in S. schleiferi the same pattern of resistance was observed in isolates showing these changes only in gyrA. This study is the first to screen FQs of the second, third and fourth generation for antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of S. intermedius and S. schleiferi of canine origin, and to describe mutations in gyrA and grlA associated with FQ resistance in these bacterial species.
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