Nitric oxide has been extensively studied as an effector molecule of the host immune response against both protozoa and helminths, but parasites can also produce this molecule, through the action of nitric oxide (NO) synthases or NO synthases-like enzymes. The aim of this study was to verify the possible production of NO by Trichinella britovi L(1) larvae and the enzymes involved in this process. The NO synthase immunoreactivity and putative nitric oxide synthase-activity was analysed using antibodies to mammalian NO synthase III and to nitrotyrosine with immunohistochemistry, gold immunocytochemistry and immunoblot analysis and NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. Our results show that T. britovi L(1) larvae possess an enzymatic activity capable of producing NO. The localisation of this activity, according to the NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, is both at the cuticular and the internal level. This localisation is confirmed by nitrotyrosine immunohistochemistry both under optical and electron microscopy. Using the NO synthase III antibody, a similar pattern of labelling was found: in particular, electron microscopy showed a localisation of this immunoreactivity in the cuticle and in the stichocytes, where only the alpha2 granules contained gold particles, mainly concentrated at their periphery. Four polypeptides reacting to the NO synthase III antibody are revealed by Western blotting. Their molecular weight ranged from 38 to 50 kDa. A significant reaction of the anti-nitrotyrosine antibody to polypeptides 95, 60, 48 and 39 kDa from the same sample suggested the presence of different nitrosylated proteins.
|Autori:||MASETTI M; MARIA TERESA LOCCI; CECCHETTINI A; LUCCHESI P; MAGI M; MALVALDI G; BRUSCHI F.|
|Titolo:||Nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the nematode Trichinella britovi. Evidence for nitric oxide production by the parasite|
|Anno del prodotto:||2004|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|