Cell-penetrating peptides are able to transport covalently attached cargoes such as peptide or polypeptide fragments of endogenous proteins across cell membranes. Taking advantage of the cell-penetrating properties of the 16-residue fragment penetratin, we synthesized a chimeric peptide that possesses an N-terminal sequence with membrane-penetrating activity and a C-terminal sequence corresponding to the last 21 residues of G alpha(s). This G alpha(s) peptide was an effective inhibitor of 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine ( NECA) and isoproterenol-stimulated production of cAMP in rat PC12 and human microvascular endothelial (HMEC-1) cells, whereas the carrier peptide had no effect. The maximal efficacy of NECA was substantially reduced when PC12 cells were treated with the chimeric peptide, suggesting that it competes with G alpha(s) for interaction with receptors. The peptide inhibited neither G(q)(-) nor G(i)-coupled receptor signaling. The use of a carboxy-fluorescein derivative of the peptide proved its ability to cross the plasma membrane of live cells. NMR analysis of the chimeric peptide structure in a membrane-mimicking environment showed that the G alpha(s) fragment assumed an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation tailored to make contact with key residues on the intracellular side of the receptor. The N-terminal penetratin portion of the molecule also showed an alpha-helical structure, but hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues formed clustered surfaces at the N terminus and center of the fragment, suggesting their involvement in the mechanism of penetratin internalization by endocytosis. Our biological data supported by NMR analysis indicate that the membrane-permeable G alpha(s) peptide is a valuable, nontoxic research tool to modulate G(s)-coupled receptor signal transduction in cell culture models.
|Autori:||D'Ursi AM; Giusti L; Albrizio S; Porchia F; Esposito C; Caliendo G; Gargini C; Novellino E; Lucacchini A; Rovero P; Mazzoni MR|
|Titolo:||A membrane-permeable peptide containing the last 21 residues of the G alpha(S) carboxyl terminus inhibits G(S)-coupled receptor signaling in intact cells: Correlations between peptide structure and biological activity|
|Anno del prodotto:||2006|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1124/mol.105.017715|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|