After the unexpected findings of the Women's Health Initiative trial, indicating that traditional cardiovascular risk markers fail to predict the effects of hormone replacement therapy, it is of interest to characterize how steroids act on vascular cells. This is particularly important for tissue-specific drugs such as tibolone, whose actions may differ from other preparations. Because nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulator of vascular tone and atherogenesis, we studied its regulation by tibolone and its metabolites on human endothelial cells. Tibolone and its estrogenic metabolites (3alpha- and 3beta-OH tibolone) activate NO synthesis by recruiting functional estrogen receptors, whereas the progestogenic/androgenic metabolite (Delta(4) isomer) has no effect. During prolonged exposures, tibolone and the estrogenic compounds enhance the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). In addition, tibolone is able to induce rapid activation of eNOS, leading to rapid increases in the release of NO. Relevant for its clinical effects, the sulfated metabolites of tibolone are also effective in activating eNOS. Different from estrogen, rapid activation of eNOS does not rely on recruitment of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase but rather on MAPK-dependent cascades. These results help to understand the mechanisms of action of tibolone on the cardiovascular system and have relevant clinical implications.
|Autori interni:||SIMONCINI, TOMMASO|
|Autori:||SIMONCINI T; MANNELLA P; FORNARI L; CARUSO A; VARONE G; GARIBALDI S; GENAZZANI A|
|Titolo:||Tibolone activates nitric oxide synthesis in human endothelial cells|
|Anno del prodotto:||2004|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|