Space flight produces profound changes of neuronal activity in the mammalian vestibular and reticular systems, affecting postural and motor functions. These changes are compensated over time by plastic alterations in the brain, Immediate early genes (IEGs) are useful indicators of both activity changes and neuronal plasticity. We studied the expression of two IEG protein products [Fos and Fos-related antigens (FRAs)] with different cell persistence times (hours and days, respectively) to identify brainstem vestibular and reticular structures involved in adaptation to microgravity and readaptation to 1 G (gravity) during the NASA Neurolab Mission (STS-90). IEG protein expression in flight animals was compared to that of ground controls using Fisher 344 rats killed 1 and 12 days after launch and I and 14 days after landing. An increase in the number of Fos-protein-positive cells in vestibular (especially medial and spinal) regions was observed 1 day after launch and 1 day after landing. Fos-positive cell numbers were no different from controls 12 days after launch or 14 days after landing. No G-related changes in IEG expression were observed in the lateral vestibular nucleus. The pattern of FRA protein expression was generally similar to that of Fos, except at 1 day after landing, when FRA-expressing cells were observed throughout the whole spinal vestibular nucleus, but only in the caudal part of the medial vestibular nucleus. Fos expression was found throughout the entire medial vestibular nucleus at this time. While both Fos and FRA expression patterns may reflect the increased G force experienced during take-off and landing, the Fos pattern may additionally reflect recent rebound episodes of rapid eye movement (REM) steep following forced wakefulness, especially after landing. Pontine activity sources producing rhythmic discharges of vestibulo-oculomotor neurons during REM sleep Could substitute for labyrinthine signals after exposure to microgravity, contributing to activity-related plastic changes leading to G readaptation, Reticular structures exhibited a contrasting pattern of changes in the numbers of Fos- and FRA-positive cells suggest a major influence from proprioceptive inputs. and plastic re-weighting of inputs after landing. Asymmetric induction of Fos and FRAs observed in some vestibular nuclei 1 day after landing suggests that activity asymmetries between bilateral otolith organs, their primary labyrinthine afferents, and vestibular nuclei may become unmasked during flight, (C) 2002 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Autori:||Pompeiano O; D'Ascanio P; Centini C; Pompeiano M; Balaban E|
|Titolo:||Gene expression in rat vestibular and reticular structures during and after space flight|
|Anno del prodotto:||2002|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/S0306-4522(02)00202-6|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|