This paper is devoted to turbo synchronization, that is to say the use of soft information to estimate parameters like carrier phase, frequency offset or timing within a turbo receiver. It is shown how maximum-likelihood estimation of those synchronization parameters can be implemented by means of the iterative expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm [A.P. Dempster, et al., 1977]. Then we show that the EM algorithm iterations can be combined with those of a turbo receiver. This leads to a general theoretical framework for turbo synchronization. The soft decision-directed ad-hoc algorithm proposed in V. Lottici and M. Luise,  for carrier phase recovery turns out to be a particular instance of this implementation. The proposed mathematical framework is illustrated by simulations reported for the particular case of carrier phase estimation combined with iterative demodulation and decoding [S. ten Brink, et al., 1998].
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.