Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic structurally related to codeine and morphine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic of tramadol and its major metabolites after caudal epidural administration in the horse. Six gelding male adult horses were assigned to receive epidural administration of tramadol at 2 mg/kg. Plasma substances detection was achieved using a HPLC-FL method. Tramadol was detectable after 5 minutes up to 8 hours after epidural administration. Metabolites plasma concentrations were found under the limit of quantification of the method; however negligible amounts of M2 was detected from 30 min up to 1 hour in three subjects. In conclusion, this study shows that tramadol administered by caudal route in horses produces plasma concentrations within the extrapolated therapeutic range from humans for sufficient time to provide analgesia. Further study of the drug's safety and efficacy for the treatment of pain in horses is warranted.
|Autori:||GIORGI M; G. SACCOMANNI; V. ANDREONI|
|Titolo:||PHARMACOKINETICS OF TRAMADOL AFTER EPIDURAL ADMINISTRATION IN HORSES|
|Anno del prodotto:||2010|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.jevs.2009.11.004|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|