Noise is an environmental stressor increasingly more present in modern life and, in particular, in a variety of recreational contexts. The aim of this work is to show the effects of noise on the myocardium and adrenal gland, through a careful review of the literature dealing with the peripheral effects of noise exposure in experimental and clinical studies. Noise induces adverse effects in human health, principally involving the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems, and the endocrine apparatus. Several factors in recreational environments potentially worsen the effects induced by loud noise. Among these, the intake of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is frequently associated with noise exposure in recreational situations, because of its high compliance within social and relaxation settings. For this reason, MDMA is defined as a club drug-as its intake by young people often occurs in association with other factors, such as aggregation, high temperatures, and noise. It is known that self-administration of MDMA by humans causes severe toxicity. In particular, the myocardium is affected early after MDMA intake-resulting in tachycardia, hypertension, and arrhythmia. Furthermore, MDMA alters the activity of the adrenal glands by elevating catecholamines and corticosterone levels. This review shows that combining MDMA and loud noise exposure potentiates the effects that are produced by each single stimulant alone as seen in experimental animal models. The convergence of the effects of prolonged loud noise exposure and the consumption of MDMA on the same system might explain the sudden fatal events that happen in recreational situations.
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