Objectives: We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of the surgical treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and extensive inferior vena cava (IVC) involvement. Our aim was to investigate if a particular surgical technique could reduce morbidity and complications associated with this condition. Materials and methods: From 1996 to 2007, 22 patients with RCC and extensive IVC involvement underwent radical surgical treatment with the intention to avoid, whenever possible, sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. The level of the tumor thrombus was I (<2 cm above the renal vein) in 2 patients, II (below the intrahepatic vena cava) in 9 patients, III (intrahepatic vena cava below the diaphragm) in 7 patients, and IV (atrial) in 4 patients. Extracorporeal vascular bypass was used for 4 patients with level IV and for 2 patients with level III tumor thrombi, with hypothermic circulatory arrest in 2 patients. Extensive liver mobilization techniques were adopted in 16 patients. Overall and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were analyzed based on tumor extent (N0M0, N+M+), pathologic stage (pT3b, pT3c, pT4), thrombus level, and caval wall infiltration. Results: Two patients died within I month of surgery and the remaining 20 patients have a mean follow-up of 32.2 months (range 6-90): 8 are alive (overall survival 40%), but 2 with disease (CSS 30%). A total of 10 severe complications developed in 8 patients (36%). Both overall and CSS were significantly associated with tumor stage (Log-rank P = 0.0237 and 0.0465), presence of nodal or systemic metastases (Log-rank P = 0.0835 and 0.0669; Wilcoxon's test P = 0.0407 and 0.0411), and caval wall infiltration (Log-rank P = 0.0200 and 0.0418). Conclusions: Despite the low overall survival, related to the high percentage of nodal and systemic metastases, aggressive surgical management with resection of synchronous metastatic disease for symptom palliation and cytoreduction, followed by immunotherapy is justified in this setting. A transabdominal approach to RCC and IVC involvement, even in patients with level III thrombus, can provide the surgeon with an exposure similar to thoracoabdominal incisions without the complications associated with thoracotomy. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Autori:||Manassero F; Mogorovich A; Di Paola G; Valent F; Perrone V; Signori S; Boggi U; Selli C.|
|Titolo:||Renal cell carcinoma with caval involvement: Contemporary strategies of surgical treatment|
|Anno del prodotto:||2011|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.urolonc.2009.09.018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|