Nephrotoxicity is a side-effect and the main factor limiting the clinical use of cisplatin. In vivo, the administration of the cysteine-containing tripeptide glutathione (GSH) has been found to reduce nephrotoxicity, but the biochemical mechanism of this protective action is not fully understood. The present study was designed to gain insights into the mechanism by which GSH prevents cisplatin nephrotoxicity. We also wanted to verify the hypothesis of whether the protective action of GSH is mediated by products of the extracellular breakdown of GSH catalysed by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), an enzyme that is highly expressed in kidney tubular cells. The study was performed in HK-2 cells, derived from the immortalisation of human kidney proximal tubule cells. We investigated the influence of modulators of GGT activity and/or thiols on the antiproliferative activity of cisplatin and on the intracellular GSH content. We determined the antiproliferative activity of cisplatin, platinum cellular accumulation and DNA platination following precomplexing of the drug with thiols. The antiproliferative effect of cisplatin was minimally affected by the addition of GSH. However, when the antiproliferative assay was performed in the presence of glycyl-glycine (GlyGly), to serve as a transpeptidation acceptor and thus to stimulate GGT-mediated GSH catabolism, cisplatin-induced growth inhibition was largely prevented. This effect was not mediated through an increase of intracellular GSH levels, which were not affected by the GlyGly supplementation. The thiol dipeptide cysteinyl-glycine, i.e. the GSH catabolite generated by GGT activity, showed a higher reactivity against cisplatin in vitro than GSH, as was shown by the more rapid oxidation of its -SH groups. The cisplatin/GSH or cisplatin/cysteinyl-glycine adducts did not display an antiproliferative effect. However, 2 h precomplexing with GSH in the presence of GGT, or directly with the GSH catabolite cysteinyl-glycine, decreased the antiproliferative effect of cisplatin and drug-induced DNA platination to a greater extent than precomplexing with GSH alone. The results of the present study show that, in HK-2 cells, extracellular GSH decreases the antiproliferative effects of cisplatin only upon its hydrolysis by GGT, thereby supporting the hypothesis that the extracellular metabolism of GSH by GGT plays a role in modulating cisplatin nephrotoxicity. A primary role in the protection of HK-2 cells appears to be played by cysteinyl-glycine, the proximal product of the GGT-mediated hydrolysis of GSH, which shows a high reactivity against CDDP resulting in the rapid inactivation of the drug.
|Autori:||PAOLICCHI A.; SOTIROPUOLOU M.; PEREGO P.; DAUBEUF S.; VISVIKIS A.; LORENZINI E.; FRANZINI M.; ROMITI N.; CHIELI E; LEONE R.; APOSTOLI P.; COLANGELO D.; ZUNINO F. ; POMPELLA A.|
|Titolo:||Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase catalyzes the extracellular detoxification of cisplatin in a human cell line derived from the proximal convolute tubule of the kidney|
|Anno del prodotto:||2003|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|