Retrotransposons are an ubiquitous component of plant genomes, especially abundant in species with large genomes. Populus trichocarpa has a relatively small genome, which was entirely sequenced; however, studies focused on poplar retrotransposons dynamics are rare. With the aim to study the retrotransposon component of the poplar genome, we have scanned the complete genome sequence searching full-length long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, i. e., characterised by two long terminal repeats at the 5′ and 3′ ends. A computational approach based on detection of conserved structural features, on building multiple alignments, and on similarity searches was used to identify 1,479 putative full-length LTR retrotransposons. Ty1-copia elements were more numerous than Ty3-gypsy. However, many LTR retroelements were not assigned to any superfamily because lacking of diagnostic features and non-autonomous. LTR retrotransposon remnants were by far more numerous than full-length elements, indicating that during the evolution of poplar, large amplification of these elements was followed by DNA loss. Within superfamilies, Ty3-gypsy families are made of more members than Ty1-copia ones. Retrotransposition occurred with increasing frequency following the separation of Populus sections, with different waves of retrotransposition activity between Ty3-gypsy and Ty1-copia elements. Recently inserted elements appear more frequently expressed than older ones. Finally, different levels of activity of retrotransposons were observed according to their position and their density in the linkage groups. On the whole, the results support the view of retrotransposons as a community of different organisms in the genome, whose activity (both retrotransposition and DNA loss) has heavily impacted and probably continues to impact poplar genome structure and size. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

A computational study of the dynamics of LTR retrotransposons in the Populus trichocarpa genome.

GIORDANI, TOMMASO;NATALI, LUCIA;CAVALLINI, ANDREA
2012

Abstract

Retrotransposons are an ubiquitous component of plant genomes, especially abundant in species with large genomes. Populus trichocarpa has a relatively small genome, which was entirely sequenced; however, studies focused on poplar retrotransposons dynamics are rare. With the aim to study the retrotransposon component of the poplar genome, we have scanned the complete genome sequence searching full-length long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, i. e., characterised by two long terminal repeats at the 5′ and 3′ ends. A computational approach based on detection of conserved structural features, on building multiple alignments, and on similarity searches was used to identify 1,479 putative full-length LTR retrotransposons. Ty1-copia elements were more numerous than Ty3-gypsy. However, many LTR retroelements were not assigned to any superfamily because lacking of diagnostic features and non-autonomous. LTR retrotransposon remnants were by far more numerous than full-length elements, indicating that during the evolution of poplar, large amplification of these elements was followed by DNA loss. Within superfamilies, Ty3-gypsy families are made of more members than Ty1-copia ones. Retrotransposition occurred with increasing frequency following the separation of Populus sections, with different waves of retrotransposition activity between Ty3-gypsy and Ty1-copia elements. Recently inserted elements appear more frequently expressed than older ones. Finally, different levels of activity of retrotransposons were observed according to their position and their density in the linkage groups. On the whole, the results support the view of retrotransposons as a community of different organisms in the genome, whose activity (both retrotransposition and DNA loss) has heavily impacted and probably continues to impact poplar genome structure and size. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Cossu, Rm; Buti, M; Giordani, Tommaso; Natali, Lucia; Cavallini, Andrea
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/199927
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