Titanium dioxide is extensively used in a variety of products, including industrial materials and cosmetics. Studies mainly performed on human cell lines and in vivo exposure on experimental animals have raised concern about the toxic effects of ultrafine titanium dioxide; however, scarce information is available about its impact on aquatic life. The aim of this article was to assess the genotoxic potential of TiO(2) (anatase and rutile) on bottlenose dolphin leukocytes. Blood samples were obtained from four male and one female specimens reared at the Adriatic SeaWorld "Oltremare" (Riccione, Italy). Leukocytes were isolated by the lyses procedure and in vitro exposed to TiO(2) in RPMI. Experimental solutions were sonicated immediately before dosing the cells. Three exposure times (4, 24 and 48 h) and three doses (20, 50 and 100 microg/ml) were tested. Genotoxicity was detected by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (or comet assay) at pH > or = 13, assessing single/double-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites. Cytotoxicity was also detected by the Trypan blue exclusion method. Results showed that both the crystalline forms of TiO(2) were genotoxic for bottlenose dolphin leukocytes, with a statistically significant increase of DNA fragmentation after exposure to 50 and 100 microg/ml for 24 and 48 h. Although preliminary, these are the first data regarding the genetic susceptibility of toothed cetaceans toward an "emerging" pollutant, such as TiO(2) particles.
|Autori:||BERNARDESCHI M; GUIDI P; SCARCELLI V; FRENZILLI G; NIGRO M|
|Titolo:||Genotoxic potential of TiO(2) on bottlenose dolphin leukocytes|
|Anno del prodotto:||2010|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/s00216-009-3261-3 I. f. 3.778|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|