Beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) play a role in angiogenic processes that characterize neovascularization-associated retinal diseases, but the role of β3-ARs has not been disclosed yet. We used ex vivo retinal explants to investigate the role of β3-ARs in regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release associated with hypoxia. Whether nitric oxide (NO) mediates β3-AR regulation of VEGF release was also investigated. β3-AR activation was obtained using BRL 37344, whereas SR59230A, L-748,337 or specific siRNAs were used to block β3-ARs. Pharmacological approaches were used to interfere with the NO pathway. Western blot was used to determine β-AR levels. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure VEGF release. NO production was assessed by a colorimetric assay. We found that hypoxia upregulates β3-ARs. In addition, we observed that β3-AR activation with BRL 37344 increases VEGF release in response to hypoxia. Either β3-AR blockers or β3-AR silencing downregulate drastically hypoxic levels of VEGF. With experiments using NO synthase (NOS) blockade with L-NAME, NOS activation with fluvastatin or NO supplementation with SNAP, we demonstrated that β3-ARs and VEGF are functionally coupled via the NO pathway. In summary, the data presented here support the assumption that β3-ARs are involved in the regulation of angiogenic responses to hypoxia through the NO signalling, a key pathway in hypoxic/ischemic diseases. Although extrapolation of these data to the human situation is difficult, these findings may help to explore the possible role of β3-ARs in vascularization-associated disorders.
|Autori:||DAL MONTE M; FILIPPI L; BAGNOLI P|
|Titolo:||Beta3-adrenergic receptors modulate vascular endothelial growth factor release in response to hypoxia through the nitric oxide pathway in mouse retinal explants|
|Anno del prodotto:||2013|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/s00210-012-0828-x|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|