The freshwater painter's mussel (Unio pictorum) was used as sentinel species to assess the chemical disturbance in an Italian river (the river Cecina) characterized by elevated levels of trace metals of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Organisms were transplanted for 4 weeks in different locations of the river basin and the bioaccumulation of metals was integrated with a wide battery of biomarkers consisting of oxidative, genotoxic and lysosomal responses. Such parameters included the levels of individual antioxidants (catalase, glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, Se-dependent and Se-independent glutathione peroxidases, total glutathione), the total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC), metallothionein-like proteins, the assessment of DNA integrity, chromosomal damages and lysosomal membrane stability. Elevated levels of several metals were measured in sediments, but the relatively low tissue concentrations suggested a moderate bioaccumulation, possibly due to a high excretion efficiency, of U. pictorum and/or to a limited bioavailability of these elements, partly deriving from erosion of bedrocks. Among antioxidant responses, those based on glutathione metabolism and the activity of catalase were mostly affected in bivalves showing a significant accumulation of arsenic, mercury and/or nickel. In these specimens, the content of glutathione and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidases (H2O2) were respectively 9-, 6- and 4-fold lower than in controls, while a 3-fold increase was observed for catalase. Despite some differences in the response of individual antioxidants, a significant reduction of the capability to neutralize peroxyl radicals was observed in bivalves caged in all the impacted sites of the river basin; these organisms also exhibited a significant impairment at the DNA, chromosomal and lysosomal levels. Considering the mild contamination gradient in the investigated area, the overall results suggested that some oxidative biomarkers, as well as those evaluating chromosomal and cell damages, are highly sensitive and could be profitably applied to caged painter's mussels for environmental quality assessment in freshwater.
|Autori:||GUIDI P; FRENZILLI G; BENEDETTI M; BERNARDESCHI M; FALLENI A; FATTORINI D; REGOLI F; SCARCELLI V; NIGRO M|
|Titolo:||Antioxidant, genotoxic and lysosomal biomarkers in the freshwater bivalve (Unio pictorum) transplanted in a metal polluted river basi|
|Anno del prodotto:||2010|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.07.009|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|