Prolonged breath hold (BH) represents a valid model for studying the cardiac adaptation to acute hypoxemia in humans. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) allows a three-dimensional, high-resolution, noninvasive, and nonionizing anatomical and functional evaluation of the heart. The aim of the study was to assess the adaptation of the cardiovascular system to prolonged BH in air. Ten male volunteer diving athletes (age 30 ± 6 yr) were studied during maximal BH duration with CMR. Four epochs were studied: I, rest; II and III, intermediate BH; and IV, peak BH. Oxygen saturation (So2), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), systemic vascular resistance (VR), end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic volumes (ESV), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), ejection fraction (EF), maximal elastance index (EL), systolic wall thickening (SWT), and end-systolic wall stress (ESWS) of the left ventricle (LV) were measured in all four BH epochs. Average BH duration was 3.7 ± 0.3 min. So2 was reduced (I: 97 ± 0.2%, range 96-98%, vs. IV: 84 ± 2.0%, range 76-92%; P < 0.00001). BP, EDV, ESV, SV, CO, and ESWS linearly increased from epochs I to IV, whereas EF, EL, and SWT showed an opposite behavior, decreasing from resting to epoch IV (all trends are P < 0.01). During prolonged BH in air, a marked enlargement of the LV chamber occurs in healthy diving athletes. This response to acute hypoxemia allows SV,CO, and arterial pressure to be maintained despite the severe reduction in LV contractile function.
|Autori:||Pingitore, A.; Gemignani, Angelo; Menicucci, D.; DI BELLA, G.; DE MARCHI, D.; Passera, M.; Bedini, R.; Ghelarducci, Brunello; L'Abbate, A.|
|Titolo:||CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO ACUTE HYPOXEMIA INDUCED BY PROLONGED BREATH-HOLDING IN AIR|
|Anno del prodotto:||2008|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1152/ajpheart.00607.2007|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|