Endemic cretinism is still present in an endemic goiter area of the central Apennines (Montefeltro) (goiter prevalence 55%; mean urinary iodine level 39 micrograms/g creatinine). Clinical and biochemical features of patients with myxedematous, neurologic, and mixed cretinism were studied. Also, in this area, as in most other, neurologic cretinism is more prevalent than myxedematous and mixed forms. The hormonal profiles of the three types of cretinism were clearly different. Nevertheless, all myxedematous cretins had some neurologic disorders (hyperreflexia, increased muscle tone, disorder of gait, Babinski sign, hypoacusia) that were similar to those present in neurologic cretins. These findings suggest that neurologic damage is very similar in all forms of endemic cretinism, reflecting a diffuse insult to the developing fetal nervous system. Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that the primary pathophysiologic event in the different types of endemic cretinism is represented by maternal and fetal hypothyroidism, while differences may be explained by the extent and duration of postnatal hypothyroidism. All the cretins were over 35 of age, suggesting a severe iodine deficiency in the past decades, and a progressive improvement of nutritional status resulted in "silent iodine prophylaxis." However, recent studies have revealed the persistence of a moderate iodine deficiency, a high prevalence of neurologic hypoacusia, and reduction of mental performance in normal schoolchildren of this area. These findings constitute strong evidence in favor of adequate iodine prophylaxis.
|Autori:||Donati L; Antonelli A; Bertoni F; Moscogiuri D; Andreani M; Venturi S; Filippi T; Gasperini L; Neri S; Baschieri L.|
|Titolo:||Clinical picture of endemic cretinism in central Apennines (Montefeltro).|
|Anno del prodotto:||1992|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|