The Italian Register for HIV-1 infection in children was instituted in 1985 by the Italian Association of Pediatrics. As of March 1990, 1422 children (1321 born to seropositive mothers, 99 infected by blood products and 2 whose personal history was not available) were enrolled in our multicentre study. The number of perinatally exposed children was higher in industrialized areas and has been increasing over the years. Intravenous drug use (66.4%), sexual contacts with infected partner (14.5%) or both (15.6%) were the main mother's risk factors, with increasing proportion of those infected by sexual contacts (up to 21% in 1989). The mother-to-offspring transmission rate was 19.9%, when assessed in first born children prospectively followed-up from birth who remained seropositive after 18 months of age. Efficiency of infection was higher in children born to symptomatic mothers, whereas it was unaffected by mode of delivery, gestational age or birthweight. The role of breast-feeding remains doubtful. The risk of infection was not increased at second pregnancy (33 siblings studied) and infection status was disconcordant only in 1/10 twin pairs. Perinatally exposed population consisted of 396 infants whose infection status was still indeterminate (P-0), 388 infected children (93 P-1), including 31 antibody-negative, viral marker-positive subjects, and 295 P-2) and 537 uninfected children. 82.6% of infected seropositive children developed HIV-related clinical manifestations at a median age of 4 months. 69 (23.4%) P-2 patients have died at a median age of 12 months. Decreased CD4 + lymphocyte counts and increased serum immunoglobulin levels in the first months of life were indexes of disease progression rather than of infection status. Specific secondary infections, neurologic disorders, growth failure, fever, anemia and hepatitis were significantly and independently correlated to a poor prognosis. 688 doses of diphteria-tetanus vaccine, 476 of inactivated polyomielitis and 327 of attenuated live polyomielitis vaccine were administered in infected infants with no recorded side effects. Among bloodborne HIV-1 infections (48 haemophilics, 41 beta-thalassemics and 10 occasionally transfused children), only anecdotal cases have been recorded after 1985, when specific preventive measures were adopted. Clinical evolution was worse in perinatally infected children when compared to that of those who acquired infection through administration of blood products. HIV-1 infection in childhood has become a main problem in Italy. Diffusion by blood products has been widely restrained, but the increasing number of perinatally infected children indicates that further specific efforts and strategies in the field of public health are needed.
|Autori:||Registro Italiano per Infezione da HIV in pediatria. Coordinatori: DE MARTINO; M; TOVO; PA; Collaboratori: Galli L; Gabiano C; Partecipanti: CARAMIA; G; DE MATTIA; D; RIZZI; M; ZANIBONI; MG; MASI; M; TROMBACCO; MG; DALLACASA; P; SALVIOLI; GP; BRUSA; S; QUARTA; G; DUSE; M; BRESCIANI; E; CAO; A; CORRIAS; A; BELLONI; M; IBBA; P; SPADA; A; ZANNINO; L; DIGREGORIO; F; SCIOTTO; A; PIGNATA; C; BEZZI; T; VIERUCCI; A; SALVI; G; CECCHI; MT; TERRAGNA; A; FERRAZIN; A; CIRAVEGNA; BW; BOERI; E; JANNUZZI; C; FORNI; GL; BARBANERA; M; MEO; A; PLEBANI; A; SCHOELLER; MC; PRINCIPI; N; GIOVANNINI; M; ZUCCOTTI; GV; SIMONI; L; STUCCHI; C; FERRARIS; G; RANCILLIO; L; MAZZONI; PL; ALTOBELLI; R; GAMBARETTO; G; ROMANO; G; CUTILLO; S; GUARINO; A; COLOMBA; A; BASSANETTI; F; ZACCHELLO; F; DELIA; R; GIAQUINTO; C; DEROSSI; A; CONSOLINI R; et al|
|Titolo:||ITALIAN REGISTER FOR HIV-1 INFECTION IN CHILDREN - REPORT UP TO 30-3-1990 (1422 CHILDREN ENROLLED)|
|Anno del prodotto:||1991|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|