Patients with essential hypertension are characterized by impaired basal and agonist-evoked nitric oxide release and increased endogenous endothelin (ET)-1-induced vasoconstriction. To assess whether candesartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, can improve endothelial function, we studied the changes in forearm blood flow (FBF) induced in 15 hypertensive patients and in 15 control subjects by the intrabrachial infusion of N-G-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), norepinephrine, the ET A/B receptor antagonist TAK 044, sodium nitroprusside, and acetylcholine. In hypertensive patients, the FBF study was repeated 2 and 12 months after the start of treatment with candesartan cilexetil (8 to 16 mg daily). Compared with controls (maximal FBF decrease, -46+/-11%), hypertensive patients showed a reduced (P<0.001) vasoconstrictor response to L-NMMA (maximal FBF decrease, -28+/-7%); the response to norepinephrine was only slightly impaired, and the response to sodium nitroprusside was similar to that of controls. Finally, TAK-044 caused greater vasodilation in hypertensive patients (maximal FBF increase, 77+/-9%) than in controls (maximal FBF increase, 17+/-10%). In hypertensive patients, candesartan cilexetil significantly enhanced vasoconstriction to L-NMMA after 2 and 12 months (maximal FBF decrease, 37+/-2% [P<0.05] and 42+/-2% [P<0.001], respectively). The responses to norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside were not modified after 2 months. After 12 months, the responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were significantly (P<0.05) enhanced at the highest rates. Vasodilation to TAK-044 was abolished after treatment with candesartan cilexetil; this effect is associated with a reduced plasma ET-1 concentration. This study demonstrated that the angiotensin II receptor blocker candesartan improves tonic nitric oxide release and reduces vasoconstriction to endogenous ET-1 in the forearm of hypertensive patients.
|Autori:||GHIADONI L; VIRDIS A; TADDEI S; MAGAGNA A; SALVETTI A|
|Titolo:||Effect of the angiotensin II receptor blocker candesartan on endothelial function in patients with essential hypertension.|
|Anno del prodotto:||2000|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1161/?01.HYP.35.1.501|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|