This article reviews established as well as emerging fields in the application of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the investigation of myocardial ischemia. TEE already has a well defined and established role in stress echocardiography in patients with poor transthoracic acoustic window, and in the detection of intraoperative myocardial ischemia in cardiac and noncardiac surgery. The evaluation of right ventricular ischemia and infarction and the assessment of coronary flow reserve (CFR) are relatively new fields in the application of TEE and the potential of this technique has not yet been fully evaluated. The evidence collected and reviewed in this article is still preliminary but it presupposes a significant role of TEE in the diagnosis and pathophysiological assessment of myocardial ischemia.
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