Morphological diversity exhibited by higher plants is essentially related to the tremendous variation of leaf shape. With few exceptions, leaf primordia are initiated postembryonically at the flanks of a group of undifferentiated and proliferative cells within the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in characteristic position for the species and in a regular phyllotactic sequence. Auxin is critical for this process, because genes involved in auxin biosynthesis, transport, and signaling are required for leaf initiation. Down-regulation of transcription factors (TFs) and cytokinins are also involved in the light-dependent leaf initiation pathway. Furthermore, mechanical stresses in SAM determine the direction of cell division and profoundly influence leaf initiation suggesting a link between physical forces, gene regulatory networks and biochemical gradients. After the leaf is initiated, its further growth depends on cell division and cell expansion. Temporal and spatial regulation of these processes determines the size and the shape of the leaf, as well as the internal structure. A complex array of intrinsic signals, including phytohormones and TFs control the appropriate cell proliferation and differentiation to elaborate the final shape and complexity of the leaf. Here, we highlight the main determinants involved in leaf initiation, epidermal patterning, and elaboration of lamina shape to generate small marginal serrations, more deep lobes or a dissected compound leaf. We also outline recent advances in our knowledge of regulatory networks involved with the unusual pattern of leaf development in epiphyllous plants as well as leaf morphology aberrations, such as galls after pathogenic attacks of pests.

Usual and unusual development of the dicot leaf: Involvement of transcription factors and hormones

FAMBRINI, MARCO;PUGLIESI, CLAUDIO
2013

Abstract

Morphological diversity exhibited by higher plants is essentially related to the tremendous variation of leaf shape. With few exceptions, leaf primordia are initiated postembryonically at the flanks of a group of undifferentiated and proliferative cells within the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in characteristic position for the species and in a regular phyllotactic sequence. Auxin is critical for this process, because genes involved in auxin biosynthesis, transport, and signaling are required for leaf initiation. Down-regulation of transcription factors (TFs) and cytokinins are also involved in the light-dependent leaf initiation pathway. Furthermore, mechanical stresses in SAM determine the direction of cell division and profoundly influence leaf initiation suggesting a link between physical forces, gene regulatory networks and biochemical gradients. After the leaf is initiated, its further growth depends on cell division and cell expansion. Temporal and spatial regulation of these processes determines the size and the shape of the leaf, as well as the internal structure. A complex array of intrinsic signals, including phytohormones and TFs control the appropriate cell proliferation and differentiation to elaborate the final shape and complexity of the leaf. Here, we highlight the main determinants involved in leaf initiation, epidermal patterning, and elaboration of lamina shape to generate small marginal serrations, more deep lobes or a dissected compound leaf. We also outline recent advances in our knowledge of regulatory networks involved with the unusual pattern of leaf development in epiphyllous plants as well as leaf morphology aberrations, such as galls after pathogenic attacks of pests.
Fambrini, Marco; Pugliesi, Claudio
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/250543
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