BACKGROUND: Kraepelin and Kretschmer hypothesized a continuum between full-blown affective pathology and premorbid temperaments. More recently Akiskal proposed a putative adaptive role for the four fundamental temperaments: the hyperthymic one characterized by emotional intensity, the cyclothymic one by emotional instability, the depressive one by a low energy level, and the irritable one by an excessive response to stimuli. Today it is widely debated whether affective temperaments belong to the domain of pathology or to that of normality. PURPOSE: To make clear, by applying an integrated model, the position of affective temperaments within the continuum between normality and pathology. METHODS: We reviewed several papers that explore the distribution of affective temperaments among the general population, and their involvement both in pathological conditions (somatic and psychiatric) and in human activities (professions and other occupations). RESULTS: Far from being intrinsically pathological conditions, affective temperaments seem to represent adaptive dispositions whose dysregulation can lead to full-blown affective pathology. All the temperamental types display some impact on people's lives by influencing personal skills and professional choices over a wide field of human activities. CONCLUSIONS: Affective temperaments are not problematic when they appear in a mild form, but when they occur in extreme form we have observed a gap between the hyperthymic temperament, which represents the most functional and desirable, and the cyclothymic, depressive, irritable and phobic anxious ones, which are closer to mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and imply a component of somatic diseases and life stressors.

Do Akiskal & Mallya's affective temperaments belong to the domain of pathology or to that of normality?

ROVAI, LUCA;MAREMMANI, ANGELO GIOVANNI ICRO;BACCIARDI, SILVIA;DELL'OSSO, LILIANA;MAREMMANI, ICRO
2013

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Kraepelin and Kretschmer hypothesized a continuum between full-blown affective pathology and premorbid temperaments. More recently Akiskal proposed a putative adaptive role for the four fundamental temperaments: the hyperthymic one characterized by emotional intensity, the cyclothymic one by emotional instability, the depressive one by a low energy level, and the irritable one by an excessive response to stimuli. Today it is widely debated whether affective temperaments belong to the domain of pathology or to that of normality. PURPOSE: To make clear, by applying an integrated model, the position of affective temperaments within the continuum between normality and pathology. METHODS: We reviewed several papers that explore the distribution of affective temperaments among the general population, and their involvement both in pathological conditions (somatic and psychiatric) and in human activities (professions and other occupations). RESULTS: Far from being intrinsically pathological conditions, affective temperaments seem to represent adaptive dispositions whose dysregulation can lead to full-blown affective pathology. All the temperamental types display some impact on people's lives by influencing personal skills and professional choices over a wide field of human activities. CONCLUSIONS: Affective temperaments are not problematic when they appear in a mild form, but when they occur in extreme form we have observed a gap between the hyperthymic temperament, which represents the most functional and desirable, and the cyclothymic, depressive, irritable and phobic anxious ones, which are closer to mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and imply a component of somatic diseases and life stressors.
Rovai, Luca; Maremmani, ANGELO GIOVANNI ICRO; Rugani, F; Bacciardi, Silvia; Pacini, M; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Akiskal, Hs; Maremmani, Icro
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/256738
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 15
  • Scopus 58
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact