Tramadol (T) is a centrally acting atypical opioid used for treatment of dogs. Piglets might experience pain following castration, tooth clipping and tail docking and experimental procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of T and its active metabolite M1 in male piglets after a single intramuscular injection. Six healthy male piglets were administered T (5 mg/kg) intramuscularly. Blood was sampled at scheduled time intervals and drug plasma concentrations evaluated by a validated HPLC method. T plasma concentration was quantitatively detectable from 0.083 to 8 h. M1 was quantified over a shorter time period (0.083–6 h) with a Tmax at 0.821 h. The study demonstrated that piglets produce a larger amount of M1 compared with dogs, horses and goats. The human minimum effective con- centration of M1 (40 ng/mL) was exceeded for over 3 h in piglets. If it is assumed to also apply to piglets, it could be speculated that the drug efficacy might exert its action over 3 h or longer. This assumption has to be con- firmed by further specific pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies.
|Autori:||Vullo C.; Kim T.W.; Meligrana M.; Marini C.; Giorgi M.|
|Titolo:||PHARMACOKINETICS OF TRAMADOL AND ITS MAJOR METABOLITE AFTER INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION IN PIGLETS|
|Anno del prodotto:||2014|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1111/jvp.12133|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|