Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has a high social and economic cost disease being its prevalence in the general population elevated and producing possibly fatal (pulmonary embolism) or disabling (post-thrombotic syndrome) complications. Thus, it appears of great importance to know the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of DVT in order to perform the best diagnosis, therapy and prophylaxis. The study population is composed by 146 patients (84 males and 62 females, mean age 60.9 +/- 15.3 years, range 19.92 years), arrived in our Vascular Echography Laboratory with the clinical suspect of DVT confirmed by means of echo color Doppler. The most frequent clinical signs were skin hyperthermia in 118 patients (80.8%) and edema in 116 patients (79.5%), while the most common symptom was pain, 89 patients (61.0%). Eleven patients (7.5%) were asymptomatic. The echo criteria utilized were direct thrombus visualization, vessel diameter higher than the contralateral, reduced or absent vessel wall ability to be compressed, reduced or absent color Doppler venous flow, lack or reduction of respiratory flow modulation, visualization of collateral circulation. DVT was located in 131 patients (89.7%) in inferior limbs (proximal in 122 patients, isolated distal in 9 patients), in 14 patients (9.6%) in superior limbs and in 3 patients (2.1%) in the internal jugular vein. In 130 patients a risk factor or a predisposing condition was identified: secondary DVT; in 16 patients the DVT was considered idiopathic. The most frequent risk factors were: previous surgery 28.1%, immobilization 19.9% trauma 17.1%, tumors 9.6%. A hypercoagulation was detected in 4 patients: antithrombin III deficit in 2, post-splenectomy thrombocytosis in 1 and antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome in the last one. The Pisa territory epidemiologic data showed a male 0.51 and female 0.38/1000 subject/year DVT incidence, with significantly higher values in older than 45-54 males and 55-64 females. One hundred and thirty one patients were treated with 5-11 day heparin infusion and thereafter with warfarin at least for 6 months, 1 year or indefinitely depending on thromboembolic risk. Six patients with distal DVT and 9 patients with hemorrhagic risk were treated with subcutaneous calcic or low weight heparin. In 1 patient with a mobile thrombus judged as at very high risk of embolization, a caval filter was positioned. Anticoagulant therapy complications were: 2 minor bleedings, 1 alopecia, 1 thrombocytopenia. Two patients died for neoplastic complications. Fifty-seven patients completed a 6-month follow-up and were submitted to a control each study that evidenced: total recanalization in 15 (26.3%), partial recanalization in 25 (43.9%) and no recanalization in 17 patients (29.8%). In 6 patients there was a DVT relapse and in 9 pulmonary embolization: almost all these patients were in the partial recanalization group.
|Autori:||Balbarini A; Rugolotto M; Buttitta F; Mariotti R; Strata G; Mariani M|
|Titolo:||Deep venous thrombosis: epidemiologic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects|
|Anno del prodotto:||1998|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|