In non-small-cell lung cancer, the molecular diagnosis of somatic mutations is instrumental for the choice of the most appropriate treatment. However, despite an initial response, resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors occurs and thereafter tumors progress. For this reason, next generation inhibitors able to overcome acquired resistances are currently in development. Therefore, the identification of the molecular determinants of resistance is needed to adapt treatment accordingly. The analysis of circulating cell-free tumor DNA represents a powerful tool to monitor the somatic changes induced by treatment. This review focuses on the most recent advantages in the diagnosis of acquired resistance in circulating cell-free tumor DNA and underlines the strategies ready to be translated in the clinical practice.
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