Quantitative information on the phenomena occuring during the upward flow of a geothermal fluid in water-dominated wells is a requisite for designing the wellhead system and optimizing resource exploitation. The geothermal fluid consists, for the most part, of a two-phase mixture of water containing dissolved salts, steam and non-condensable gases. Various, closely interrelated effects must therefore be taken into consideration: pressure drop of the rising fluid; heat and mass transfer between the phases (due to evaporation and desorption); heat exchange with rock formations. Simultaneous application of the mass, energy and momentum equations results in a rather complex model that can be solved by a numerical computer program. The model described here accounts for the effects of: the presence of salts, when computing all the thermodynamic properties of the fluids, especially enthalpy, density, vapour pressure of the brine and superheated steam enthalpy; the presence of non-condensable gases, considering their deviations from ideal behaviour and their contribution to density; the heat exchange with the surrounding rock formations; variation in salt concentration along the flow-path; possible variation in pipe diameter and surface roughness with height. The simplified hypotheses adopted are: fluid flow is stationary; thermodynamic equilibrium conditions exist between the phases in each point along the well; the non-condensable gases are assumed to be CO2; Henry's law is assumed valid and the quantity dissolved chemically is assumed negligible; the salts are assumed to be NaCl; the activity coefficients are unitary; liquid surface tension and viscosity values are assumed equal to those of pure water. Comparison of the results of the computer program and the experimental pressure and temperature profiles shows that these are in satisfactory agreement within a rather wide range of operative conditions. The noncondensable gases, even in very low concentrations, were shown to be of importance to these calculations. Once the experimental temperature and pressure profiles are known, the model will also permit calculation of the concentration of non-condensable gases. The most efficient of the two correlations used to compute pressure drop in two-phase regimes seems to be that devised by CISE‡ ‡ Centro Italiano Studi ed Esperienze, Milan, Italy., which is based on global parameters not correlated to the different flow regimes

A Two-Phase flow model for Geothermal Wells in the Presence of Non-Condensable Gas

SCALI, CLAUDIO
1982

Abstract

Quantitative information on the phenomena occuring during the upward flow of a geothermal fluid in water-dominated wells is a requisite for designing the wellhead system and optimizing resource exploitation. The geothermal fluid consists, for the most part, of a two-phase mixture of water containing dissolved salts, steam and non-condensable gases. Various, closely interrelated effects must therefore be taken into consideration: pressure drop of the rising fluid; heat and mass transfer between the phases (due to evaporation and desorption); heat exchange with rock formations. Simultaneous application of the mass, energy and momentum equations results in a rather complex model that can be solved by a numerical computer program. The model described here accounts for the effects of: the presence of salts, when computing all the thermodynamic properties of the fluids, especially enthalpy, density, vapour pressure of the brine and superheated steam enthalpy; the presence of non-condensable gases, considering their deviations from ideal behaviour and their contribution to density; the heat exchange with the surrounding rock formations; variation in salt concentration along the flow-path; possible variation in pipe diameter and surface roughness with height. The simplified hypotheses adopted are: fluid flow is stationary; thermodynamic equilibrium conditions exist between the phases in each point along the well; the non-condensable gases are assumed to be CO2; Henry's law is assumed valid and the quantity dissolved chemically is assumed negligible; the salts are assumed to be NaCl; the activity coefficients are unitary; liquid surface tension and viscosity values are assumed equal to those of pure water. Comparison of the results of the computer program and the experimental pressure and temperature profiles shows that these are in satisfactory agreement within a rather wide range of operative conditions. The noncondensable gases, even in very low concentrations, were shown to be of importance to these calculations. Once the experimental temperature and pressure profiles are known, the model will also permit calculation of the concentration of non-condensable gases. The most efficient of the two correlations used to compute pressure drop in two-phase regimes seems to be that devised by CISE‡ ‡ Centro Italiano Studi ed Esperienze, Milan, Italy., which is based on global parameters not correlated to the different flow regimes
Barelli, A.; Corsi, R.; Del Pizzo, G.; Scali, Claudio
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/4991
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact