Rates and products of electrophilic bromination of ring-substituted cis-and trans-stilbenes have been investigated in acetic acid, trifluoroethanol, ethanol, methanol, and water-methanol mixtures. The mY(Br) relationships (linear for nucleophilic solvents only, with m = 0.8), the deviations of the two nonnucleophilic solvents from the mY(Br) plots (Delta(AcOH) and a Delta(TFE) positive, negative, or negligible), the kinetic solvent isotope effects (k(MeOH)/k(MeOD) = 1.1 - 1.6), the chemoselectivity (predominant dibromide, DB, or solvent-incorporated adducts, MA), and the high dependence of the stereochemistry on the solvent and the substituents (from stereoconvergency to stereospecificity) are discussed and interpreted in terms of a mechanistic scheme, analogous to the Jencks scheme for aliphatic nucleophilic substitutions, in which preassociation, free-ion, and ion-pair pathways compete, In particular, the stereochemical outcome of these reactions is consistent with a marked change in the nucleophilic partners of the product-forming ionic intermediate arising from different ionization routes. Return, i.e. change in the rate-limiting step from ionization to product formation, is shown to be related to substituent-dependent, but not solvent-dependent, bromine bridging.
|Autori:||Ruasse MF; Lo Moro G; Galland B; Bianchini R; Chiappe C; Bellucci G|
|Titolo:||Preassociation, free-ion, and ion-pair pathways in the electrophilic bromination of substituted cis- and trans-stilbenes in protic solvents|
|Anno del prodotto:||1997|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1021/ja9700461|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|