Many nutrients are known for a wide range of activities in prevention and alleviation of various diseases. Recently, their potential role in epigenetics regulating human health has become evident, although specific mechanisms are still unclear. Thus, nutriepigenetics/nutriepigenomics has emerged as a new and promising field in current epigenetics research in the past few years. In particular, polyphenols, as part of the central dynamic interaction between the genome and the environment with specificity at physiological concentrations, are well known to affect mechanisms underlying human health. This review summarizes the effects of dietary compounds on epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of gene expression including expression of enzymes and other molecules responsible for drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in cancer, metabolic syndrome, neurodegenerative disorders, and hormonal dysfunctions.
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