Background. Experimental studies have demonstrated that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) enhances zidovudine (AZT)-induced DNA strand breaks and cytotoxicity. Phase I studies have demonstrated that the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) of AZT is 8000 mg/sqm when administered i.v. over two hours after weekly 5-FU + 1-leucovorin (LV), and that this combination has promising antitumor activity. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the antitumor activity of weekly bolus 5-FU + LV + AZT, administered al its MTD, and to determine whether 5-FU enhances AZT-induced DNA strand breaks in blood nuclear cells. Patients and methods. Twenty-nine chemotherapy-naive metastatic colorectal cancer patients with measurable disease entered the study to evaluate the activity of a weekly 5-FU 500 mg/m(2) i.v. bolus + LV 250 mg/m(2) i.v. two-hour infusion + AZT 8000 mg/m(2) i.v. two-hour infusion. In 10 different patients, who during three different weeks received 5-FU + LV, AZT and 5-FU + LV + AZT, DNA strand breaks in blood nuclear cells were determined by a fluorescent analysis of DNA unwinding. Results: Treatment was generally well tolerated and WHO grades III-IV toxicities, consisting mostly of diarrhea (17%), were uncommon. One patient died of severe diarrhea with consequent hypokalemia and cardiac arrhythmia. All patients were considered evaluable for response, and 3 (10%) complete and 10 (35%) partial responses were observed, for an objective response rate of 45% (95% confidence limit interval 26%-64%). Both 5-FU + LV and AZT decreased the percentage of double stranded DNA in nuclear blood cells. The greatest effect was observed with 5-FU + LV + AZT which reduced the percentage of double stranded DNA to 50% and 36% after 24 and 48 hours, respectively, and this interaction between 5-FU + LV and AZT was found to be cumulative. Conclusions. These studies demonstrate that the present dose and schedule of AZT in combination with 5-FU + LV has significant activity in metastatic colorectal cancer and that the combination of 5-FU + LV with AZT increases the amount of DNA damage. Therefore, AZT in combination with 5-FU + LV warrants further study in colorectal cancer.
|Autori:||FALCONE A.; LENCIONI M.; BRUNETTI I.; PFANNER E.; ALLEGRINI G.; ANTONUZZO A.; ANDREUCCETTI M.; MALVALDI G.; DANESI R; DEL TACCA M.; CONTE P.F.|
|Titolo:||Maximum tolerable doses of intravenous zidovudine in combination with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Clinical evidence of significant antitumor activity and enhancement of zidovudine-induced DNA single strand breaks in peripheral nuclear blood cells|
|Anno del prodotto:||1997|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.10210.1023/A:1008249803523|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|