Kamil is a 45 m diameter impact crater identified in 2008 in southern Egypt. It was generated by the hypervelocity impact of the Gebel Kamil iron meteorite on a sedimentary target, namely layered sandstones with subhorizontal bedding. We have carried out a petrographic study of samples from the crater wall and ejecta deposits collected during our first geophysical campaign (February 2010) in order to investigate shock effects recorded in these rocks. Ejecta samples reveal a wide range of shock features common in quartz-rich target rocks. They have been divided into two categories, as a function of their abundance at thin section scale: (1) pervasive shock features (the most abundant), including fracturing, planar deformation features, and impact melt lapilli and bombs, and (2) localized shock features (the least abundant) including high-pressure phases and localized impact melting in the form of intergranular melt, melt veins, and melt films in shatter cones. In particular, Kamil crater is the smallest impact crater where shatter cones, coesite, stishovite, diamond, and melt veins have been reported. Based on experimental calibrations reported in the literature, pervasive shock features suggest that the maximum shock pressure was between 30 and 60 GPa. Using the planar impact approximation, we calculate a vertical component of the impact velocity of at least 3.5 km s−1. The wide range of shock features and their freshness make Kamil a natural laboratory for studying impact cratering and shock deformation processes in small impact structures.
|Autori interni:||FAZIO, AGNESE|
|Autori:||Fazio A.; Folco L.; D'Orazio M.; Frezzotti M. L.; Cordier C.|
|Titolo:||Shock metamorphism and impact melting in small impact craters on Earth: Evidence from Kamil Crater, Egypt|
|Anno del prodotto:||2014|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1111/maps.12385|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|