Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in multiple myeloma (MM) is uncommon. Among its possible presentations, leptomeningeal involvement of MM, also termed central nervous system myelomatosis (CNS-MM) is rare and is characterized by the presence of neoplastic plasma cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). So far, 187 cases of CNS-MM have been reported : the great majority of them were diagnosed by cytological assays and flow cytometry was used in only eight cases. We describe a case of CNS-MM in a 62-year-old woman, previously treated with chemotherapy (VTD) and autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for stage IIIB IgG-λ MM. After achieving a very good partial response, the patient showed progression of disease, with an extramedullary localization. During administration of second-line therapy, the patient showed severe neurological symptoms. MRI resulted negative. Diagnosis of CNS-MM was made by multiparameter flow cytometry, which showed the presence of CD56(+) plasma cells in a CSF sample, in the absence of plasma cell leukemia. In this paper we also present a review of the eight previous cases of CNS-MM diagnosed by flow cytometry. We found that the application of flow cytometry in cases of MM with neurological symptoms allows a rapid diagnosis of CNS-MM and provides useful information about plasma cell phenotype (including CD56 expression). Some cases of CNS-MM are characterized by normal MRI. In addition, some evidences deriving from the review of literature suggest that CSF monitoring by flow cytometry in such cases might be used to evaluate the efficacy of drugs capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier.
|Autori:||Marini A; Carulli G; Lari T; Buda G; Lambelet P; Ciancia EM; Benedetti E; Caracciolo F; Ferreri MI; Pesaresi I; Rousseau M; Ottaviano V; Azzarà A; Petrini M|
|Titolo:||Myelomatous meningitis evaluated by multiparameter flow cytometry : report of a case and review of the literature|
|Anno del prodotto:||2014|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|