Cytokines are intercellular mediators involved in viral control and liver damage being induced by infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The complex cytokine network operating during initial infection allows a coordinated, effective development of both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, HCV interferes with cytokines at various levels and escapes immune response by inducing a T-helper (Th)2/T cytotoxic 2 cytokine profile. Inability to control infection leads to the recruitment of inflammatory infiltrates into the liver parenchyma by interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)9, -10, and -11 chemokines, which results in sustained liver damage and eventually in liver cirrhosis. The most important systemic HCV-related extrahepatic diseases-mixed cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, thyroid autoimmune disorders, and type 2 diabetes-are associated with a complex dysregulation of the cytokine/chemokine network, involving proinflammatory and Th1 chemokines. The therapeutical administration of cytokines such as IFN-α may result in viral clearance during persistent infection and revert this process. Theoretically agents that selectively neutralize CXCL10 could increase patient responsiveness to traditional IFN-based HCV therapy. Several studies have reported IL-28B polymorphisms and circulating CXCL10 may be a prognostic markers for HCV treatment efficacy in HCV genotype 1 infection.

Cytokines and HCV-related autoimmune disorders

ANTONELLI, ALESSANDRO;Ferrari SM;Fallahi P.
2014

Abstract

Cytokines are intercellular mediators involved in viral control and liver damage being induced by infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The complex cytokine network operating during initial infection allows a coordinated, effective development of both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, HCV interferes with cytokines at various levels and escapes immune response by inducing a T-helper (Th)2/T cytotoxic 2 cytokine profile. Inability to control infection leads to the recruitment of inflammatory infiltrates into the liver parenchyma by interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)9, -10, and -11 chemokines, which results in sustained liver damage and eventually in liver cirrhosis. The most important systemic HCV-related extrahepatic diseases-mixed cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, thyroid autoimmune disorders, and type 2 diabetes-are associated with a complex dysregulation of the cytokine/chemokine network, involving proinflammatory and Th1 chemokines. The therapeutical administration of cytokines such as IFN-α may result in viral clearance during persistent infection and revert this process. Theoretically agents that selectively neutralize CXCL10 could increase patient responsiveness to traditional IFN-based HCV therapy. Several studies have reported IL-28B polymorphisms and circulating CXCL10 may be a prognostic markers for HCV treatment efficacy in HCV genotype 1 infection.
Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Sm; Ruffilli, I; Fallahi, P.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/653871
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