Microirrigation plants, if properly designed, allow for water use efficiency to be optimized and high values of emission uniformity to be obtained in the field. Disposing paired laterals, for which two distribution pipes extend in opposite directions from a common manifold, can contribute to reducing the initial investment cost that represents a limiting factor for small-scale farmers of developing countries where in the last decade, the diffusion of such irrigation systems has been increasing. The objective of this paper is to propose an analytical approach to evaluate the maximum lengths of paired drip laterals for any uniform ground slope, respecting the criteria to maintain emitter flow rates or the corresponding pressure heads within fixed ranges in order to achieve a relatively high field emission uniformity coefficient. The method is developed by considering the motion equations along uphill and downhill sides of the lateral and the hypothesis to neglect the variations of emitters’ flow rate along the lateral as well as the local losses due to emitters’ insertions. If for the uphill pipe, the minimum and the maximum pressure heads occur at the upstream end and at the manifold connection, respectively, on the downhill side, the minimum pressure head is located in a certain section of the lateral, depending on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the lateral, as well as on the slope of the field; a second relative maximum pressure head could also exist at the downstream end of the pipe. The proposed methodology allows in particular the number of emitters in uphill and downhill sides of the lateral to be determined separately, and therefore, once fixing emitter’s spacing, the length of the uphill and downhill laterals and the position of the manifold. Applications and validation of the proposed approach, considering different design parameters, are finally presented and discussed.
|Autori:||Baiamonte, G.; Provenzano, G.; Rallo, G.|
|Titolo:||Analytical Approach Determining the Optimal Length of Paired Drip Laterals in Uniformly Sloped Fields|
|Anno del prodotto:||2015|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000768|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|