AIMS: We assessed the impact of vascular and perivascular tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on the endothelin (ET)-1/nitric oxide (NO) system and the molecular pathways involved in small arteries from visceral fat of obese patients (Obese) and Controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: Isolated small arteries from 16 Obese and 14 Controls were evaluated on a pressurized micromyograph. Endogenous ET-1 activity was assessed by the ETA blocker BQ-123. TNF-α and NO were tested by anti-TNF-α infliximab (IFX) and N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methylester (L-NAME). Gene and protein expression of TNF-α, ET-1, ETA, and ETB receptors were determined by RT-PCR and IHC on arterial wall and in isolated adipocytes. Obese showed a blunted L-NAME-induced vasoconstriction, which was potentiated by IFX, and an increased relaxation to BQ-123, unaffected by L-NAME but attenuated by IFX. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) removal reversed these effects. Obese showed intravascular superoxide excess, which was decreased by apocynin (NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor), L-NAME, and BQ-123 incubations, and abolished by IFX. An increased vascular expression of ET-1, ETA, and ETB receptors, and higher vascular/perivascular TNF-α and TNF-α receptor expression were also detected. The arterial expression and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were higher in Obese vs. Controls, and downregulated by IFX. CONCLUSIONS: In small arteries of Obese, PVAT-derived TNF-α excess, and an increased vascular expression of ET-1 and ETA receptor, contribute to the ET-1/NO system imbalance, by impairing tonic NO release. Reactive oxygen species excess, via NAD(P)H oxidase activation, induces the endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling, which in turn generates superoxide and impairs NO production. The up-regulated JNK pathway represents a crucial molecular signalling involved in this process.

Tumour necrosis factor-alpha participates on the endothelin-1/nitric oxide imbalance in small arteries from obese patients: role of perivascular adipose tissue

VIRDIS, AGOSTINO;ROSSI, CHIARA;CHIARUGI, MASSIMO;TADDEI, STEFANO;SOLINI, ANNA
2015-01-01

Abstract

AIMS: We assessed the impact of vascular and perivascular tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on the endothelin (ET)-1/nitric oxide (NO) system and the molecular pathways involved in small arteries from visceral fat of obese patients (Obese) and Controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: Isolated small arteries from 16 Obese and 14 Controls were evaluated on a pressurized micromyograph. Endogenous ET-1 activity was assessed by the ETA blocker BQ-123. TNF-α and NO were tested by anti-TNF-α infliximab (IFX) and N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methylester (L-NAME). Gene and protein expression of TNF-α, ET-1, ETA, and ETB receptors were determined by RT-PCR and IHC on arterial wall and in isolated adipocytes. Obese showed a blunted L-NAME-induced vasoconstriction, which was potentiated by IFX, and an increased relaxation to BQ-123, unaffected by L-NAME but attenuated by IFX. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) removal reversed these effects. Obese showed intravascular superoxide excess, which was decreased by apocynin (NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor), L-NAME, and BQ-123 incubations, and abolished by IFX. An increased vascular expression of ET-1, ETA, and ETB receptors, and higher vascular/perivascular TNF-α and TNF-α receptor expression were also detected. The arterial expression and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were higher in Obese vs. Controls, and downregulated by IFX. CONCLUSIONS: In small arteries of Obese, PVAT-derived TNF-α excess, and an increased vascular expression of ET-1 and ETA receptor, contribute to the ET-1/NO system imbalance, by impairing tonic NO release. Reactive oxygen species excess, via NAD(P)H oxidase activation, induces the endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling, which in turn generates superoxide and impairs NO production. The up-regulated JNK pathway represents a crucial molecular signalling involved in this process.
2015
Virdis, Agostino; Duranti, E; Rossi, Chiara; Dell'Agnello, U; Santini, E; Anselmino, M; Chiarugi, Massimo; Taddei, Stefano; Solini, Anna
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/666680
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