Conventional cytogenetics continues to have a fundamental role in the classification and risk scoring of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Nevertheless, non-informative karyotypes represent up to 20% of cases. Some different molecular methods, not included in the routinary diagnostic workup, such as aCGH or mutational analysis, could be able to detect new abnormalities and improve the subtyping of MDS. The aim of this study was to propose a new diagnostic workup to determine the eventual adjunctive value offered by FISH, aCGH, and somatic mutation assays in respect of the the conventional cytogenetics only. In this study, we analyzed 50 patients: 29% female and 71% male, median age 71 (range 30-88 years), 66% at low/int1 IPSS risk, 54% at very-low/low R-IPSS risk, 33% with RCMD, 15% with RA, 14% with RARS, 14% with RAEB, 8% 5q-, and 16% with MMCL. We assessed these new MDS cases by different techniques: i) conventional cytogenetics; ii) FISH for chromosome 5, 7, PDGFRa, and PDGFRb; iii) aCGH, and iiii) specific RT-PCR for ASXL1, EZH2, TP53, and TET2 mutations. Conventional cytogenetics showed 42% of patients with at least one chromosomal aberration, including +8, del(11), del(7), del(5), -Y, +6, del(13), +14, del(20), and complex karyotypes (6% of cases). After FISH analysis, we were able to correctly classify as affected by the 5q- syndrome 2 cases who then received lenalidomide. The aGCH allowed to detect quantitative chromosomal aberrations in 44% of cases (del(13), -7, del(12), del(16), del(17), del(11), del(8), dupl(14), 5q-), including 10 cases (20%) showing a normal karyotype. After the RT-PCR, 32% of patients resulted mutated, with highest frequency for TP53 (22%). Four of these TP53-mutated patients showed normal karyotype, and resulted unmutated also by FISH and aCGH; in a case TP53 mutated we added treatment with steroid. Other 3 patients TP53-mutated did not respond to azacitidine Four low-risk patients (8%) showed ASXL1 gene mutation, three of them not earlier detected by cytogenetics or aCGH. One of these patients died after progression into acute leukemia. The identification of TP53 or ASXL1 mutations after RT-PCR and of dupl(14) by the aCGH prompted us to strictly follow patients at high risk of transformation. Only one case showed TET2 mutation; although TET2 mutations have been related to a better survival in patients receiving 5-azacitidine, this patient resulted not-responsive after 9 cycles. In conclusion, these results sustain the necessity of an integrated work-up for the diagnosis and the correct risk scoring of MDS patients.
|Titolo:||Myelodysplastic Syndromes: A Multidisciplinary Integrated Diagnostic Work-up for Patients' Risk Stratification|
|Anno del prodotto:||2014|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.5 Abstract in rivista|