Female pelvic floor is a complex functional unit involved in multiple functions that extend beyond the sole support of pelvic organs. Pelvic floor dysfunction globally affects micturition, defecation and sexual activity. Evolutionary modifications such ad adaptation to upright standing, walking and the need to deliver fetuses with larger head diameters made the fascial and muscle support of the pelvic floor vulnerable, therefore predisposing women to pelvic organ prolapse and incontinence. Different than in males, the female pelvic floor undergoes a number of adaptive changes related to life and endocrine events. Most of the clinical manifestations of these changes become apparent after menopause and throughout aging in women. This review article summarizes the key aspects of the pathophysiology and the clinics of the modifications of the pelvic floor in women through midlife and beyond. A particular focus is given to the relationship between urinary and bowel dysfunction.
|Autori:||Mannella, P; Palla, G; Bellini, M; Simoncini, T.|
|Titolo:||The female pelvic floor through midlife and aging.|
|Anno del prodotto:||2013|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.08.008|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|