Numerous prognostic markers have shown to be predictive of patient outcome in heart failure (HF). The recent guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic HF have identified as many as 57 individual markers in patients with HF, including demographic data, etiology, comorbidities, clinical, radiological, hemodynamic, echocardiographic and biochemical parameters. If more accurate risk stratification is required, several scoring systems have been proposed. This article reviews scoring systems for HF prognostication. Although most of the models include readily available clinical information, usually NYHA functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and comorbidities, quite a few of them comprise Doppler echocardiographic variables, other than LVEF, and circulating levels of natriuretic peptides. In order to achieve a better prediction of the outcome, an ideal score should be based on a comprehensive Doppler echocardiographic examination, the assessment of circulating biomarkers, and a more objective evaluation of exercise tolerance.
|Autori interni:||MICCOLI, MARIO|
|Autori:||Fontanive, P; Miccoli, M; Scali, Mc; Simioniuc, A; Dini, Fl; Marzilli, M.|
|Titolo:||Gli score clinici nell’insufficienza cardiaca cronica: esiste uno score ideale|
|Anno del prodotto:||2015|
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